Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Unfortunately the only possibility to meet your constraints is to periodically polle.
This can be optimized in several ways if somepredicate can be decomposed e. Event s or whatever, etc, etcbut in the general terms you ask for, this inefficient approach is the only way out. Since you're dealing with external libraries in boost. Usage: You pass a function that will be called every time as a condition, a timeout, and this is useful you can pass a description for the waiting, which will be displayed if you get TimeoutError.
Learn more. Is there an easy way in Python to wait until certain condition is true? Ask Question.
Selenium: Wait until text in WebElement changes
Asked 9 years, 11 months ago. Active 1 month ago. Viewed 61k times. I need to wait in a script until a certain number of conditions become true? Is there an easier way to do it, barring continuous polling of the condition? Alex B Alex B Active Oldest Votes.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. On my linux box, I use the following code.
This is similar to code I've seen elsewhere in the old python FAQs for instance but that code spins in a tight loop where this code doesn't and there are lots of odd corner cases that code doesn't account for that this code does.
The python manual provides the following:. I'm using this code specifically because I want it to block. I implemented this in a package on PyPI with a lot of other goodies called console :. I don't know of a platform independent way of doing it, but under Windows, if you use the msvcrt module, you can use its getch function:. Under UNIX, there is the curses package, but not sure if you can use it without using it for all of the screen output. This code works under UNIX:. Note that curses. If you want to wait for enter so the user knocking the keyboard does not cause something un-intended to happen use.
I am new to python and I was already thinking I am too stupid to reproduce the simplest suggestions made here. It turns out, there's a pitfall one should know:. When a python-script is executed from IDLE, some IO-commands seem to behave completely different as there is actually no terminal window. This has already been reported long ago see e. However the read command can be passed to bash:. Learn more. How do I make python wait for a pressed key? Ask Question. Asked 10 years, 10 months ago.
Active 8 days ago. Viewed k times. I want my script to wait until the user presses any key. How do I do that? Alexis Wilke Janusz Janusz k gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. In Python 3 use input : input "Press Enter to continue I'm getting this error when I try to do this in Python 2.
Solarsaturn9 and an increasing and large number do not. Thus this answer did not work for me, and the many other that come here. It's ridiculous to dock points for providing a alternative Windows only solution when the first solution is multi-platform. Solarsaturn9 read the question and answer again: input does not continue if any key is pressed, only if enter is pressed.
JonTirsen that's because Python 2. Warren P Greg Hewgill Greg Hewgill k gold badges silver badges bronze badges. What about when it can be one of a number of keys?For many types of applications, at times it is necessary to pause the running of the program until some external condition occurs.
You may need to wait until another thread finishes, or maybe until a new file appears in a directory on disk that is being watched. In these and many other situations you will need to figure out a way to make your script wait, and this isn't as easy as it sounds if you want to do it properly!
In this article I'm going to show you a few different ways to wait. I'm going to use Python for all the examples, but the concepts I'm going to present apply to all programming languages. To keep this example simple, I have coded this function with a time. When the function reaches the end, a result global variable is set with the result of this made-up calculation, which is going to be, obviously, the number forty-two.
The main application function starts the background calculation in a separate thread, then waits for the thread to complete its work and finally prints the result global variable. The version of this function that you see above does not have the waiting part implemented, you can see a TODO comment in the place where the wait needs to take place.
In the following sections I'm going to show you a few different ways to implement this wait, starting from the worst and working my way up to the best. If you want to experience it, you can try the script on your system. As soon as the script runs, open your Task Manager on Windows, Activity Monitor on Mac or maybe top if you prefer the command line. Look at CPU usage and note how it goes through the roof.
This while-loop appears to be an empty loop, and in fact it mostly is, with the only exception that the loop exit condition needs to be checked over and over again to determine when the loop should exit. So while the loop body is completely empty, Python is forced to continuously evaluate result is Noneand actually, the fact that the loop is empty makes Python concentrate fully on repeating this evaluation as fast as it possibly can, burning a lot of CPU cycles, and making everything else running on that CPU much slower!
This type of wait loop is often called a busy wait. And a CPU that is stuck doing a lot of work over nothing as in this case is said to be spinning. Never do this. It is interesting that in the busy waiting example from the previous section, you would think that having an empty loop should give less work to the CPU, but in fact the contrary happens.
So the obvious improvement to the previous solution is to add something inside the while-loop that puts a brake to the CPU frantically evaluating the while-loop exit condition. I'm sure a lot of you can guess what we can do inside the loop to slow things down a bit. We can sleep:. The time. In the above example, we are sleeping for 15 seconds in each loop iteration, which means that Python will only evaluate the exit condition of the loop at a rate of four times per minute, compared to as fast as it could in the previous version.
During those 15 seconds of sleep the CPU will not perform any work, and will be free to take on work from other processes running on your computer. If you try this version of the wait, you are going to find that the script waits without overtasking the CPU, so you may think that we now have the perfect solution. Yet, I have titled this section "The Bad", didn't I? While this solution is miles better than the previous one, there are two problems with it that still make it less than ideal.
First of all, this loop still qualifies as busy waiting. We just made it tolerable by reducing the frequency of the spin.
The second problem is more concerning, in my opinion. Imagine the background task that is doing this calculation takes exactly 61 seconds to complete its work and produce a result. If our wait loop starts at about the same time the task starts, it would be checking the value of the result variable at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 seconds.These days most of the web apps are using AJAX techniques.
When a page is loaded by the browser, the elements within that page may load at different time intervals. This makes locating elements difficult: if an element is not yet present in the DOM, a locate function will raise an ElementNotVisibleException exception.
Using waits, we can solve this issue. Waiting provides some slack between actions performed - mostly locating an element or any other operation with the element. An explicit wait makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution. An implicit wait makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element. An explicit wait is a code you define to wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further in the code.
The extreme case of this is time. There are some convenience methods provided that help you write code that will wait only as long as required.
WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition is one way this can be accomplished. This waits up to 10 seconds before throwing a TimeoutException unless it finds the element to return within 10 seconds. WebDriverWait by default calls the ExpectedCondition every milliseconds until it returns successfully.
A successful return is for ExpectedCondition type is Boolean return true or not null return value for all other ExpectedCondition types. There are some common conditions that are frequently of use when automating web browsers. Listed below are the names of each. You can also create custom wait conditions when none of the previous convenience methods fit your requirements. An implicit wait tells WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find any element or elements not immediately available.
The default setting is 0. Once set, the implicit wait is set for the life of the WebDriver object. Firefox driver. ID"myDynamicElement" finally : driver. ID'someid'. Navigation 1. Installation 2. Getting Started 3. Navigating 4.
Python wait time, wait for user input
Locating Elements 5. Waits 5. Explicit Waits 5. Implicit Waits 6. Page Objects 7. WebDriver API 8. Locating Elements Next: 6.Tag: pythonseleniumselenium-webdriver. I'm using selenium with regex for Python 2. Relevant part of the code may be found under def crawl isin : The program enters what to search for in the searchbox searchkey. Is there a method for this?
It is important to note that the content in the searchbox is dynamically loaded, so the function would have to recognize that something has changed in the WebElement. You need to apply the Explicit Wait concept. Here, it would wait up to 10 seconds checking the visibility of the element every ms.
There is a set of built-in Expected Conditions to wait for and it is also easy to write your custom Expected Condition. FYI, here is how we approached it after brainstorming it in the chat. We've introduced a custom Expected Condition that would wait for the element text to change. It helped us to identify when the new search results appear:. Just use photoshop or G.
I assure you, doing it that way will be much simpler and less redundant than essentially getting Tkinter to photo edit for you not to mention what you're talking about is just bad practice when it comes to coding Anyways, I guess if you really You can use the include tag in order to supply the included template with a consistent variable name: For example: parent.
Since you want to convert python script to exe have a look at py2exe. But there's no way to prevent someone else to re-declare such a variable -- thus ignoring conventions -- when importing a module.
There are two ways of working around this when importing modules I'm afraid you can't do it like this. I suggest you have just one relationship users and validate the insert queries. The pipeline calls transform on the preprocessing and feature selection steps if you call pl. That means that the features selected in training will be selected from the test data the only thing that makes sense here.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have a selenium script python that clicks a reply button to make the class anonemail appear.
The time it takes for the class anonemail to appear varies. Because of that I have to use sleep until the element has appeared. I want to wait until the class has appeared instead of using sleep. I have heard about wait commands, but I don't know how to use them. This does not necessarily mean that the element is visible.
So the effective line of code will be:.
Flask Web Development, 2nd Edition
Visibility means that the element is not only displayed but also has a height and width that is greater than 0. So in your usecase effectively the line of code will be:.
You can use waits. Check for more info on this link: selenium watis. After click reply button, use. Waits docs. Learn more. Selenium - wait until element is present, visible and interactable Ask Question. Asked 4 months ago. Active 4 months ago.
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Viewed 3k times.Sometimes we want our python program to wait for a specific time before executing the next steps. We can use time module sleep function to pause our program for specified seconds. When we run this program, there will be 5 seconds delay between first print statement and second print statement. Sometimes we want to get some inputs from the user through the console. We can use input function to achieve this. In this case, the program will wait indefinitely for the user input.
Once the user provides the input data and presses the enter key, the program will start executing the next statements. Surprising, there is no easy way to wait for user input with a timeout or default value when empty user input is provided. I hope these useful features come in future Python releases. Your email address will not be published. I would love to connect with you personally. Table of Contents 1 Python wait time 2 Python wait for user input.
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